Saturday, August 22, 2020
This is an audit of the HBR article Ã¢â¬Å"10 Rules for Managing Global InnovationÃ¢â¬ for the writers Keeley Wilson and Yves L. Doz . Keeley Wilson is a senior research individual at INSEAD in Fontainebleau, France .Yves L. Doz is the Solvay Chaired Professor of Technological Innovation at INSEAD. INSEAD is positioned the fifth best business colleges for a normal of three years term by the Financial occasions positioning. Ã¢â¬Å"10 Rules for Managing Global InnovationÃ¢â¬ is composed by the creators to stick point ten guidelines that the creators see urgent for a worldwide organization to deal with its all around scattered specialty units and still prop the imaginative procedure up easily and efficiently.The creators rundown of the 10 standards is as follows,1. Start little: invlolving all colleagues in a momentary ventures and simple to accomplish so as to fabricate it and to prepare all individuals for the huge testing venture 2. Give a stable hierarchical setting: and in th is manner maintaining a strategic distance from representatives feeling uncertain and lose center around the imaginative procedure. 3. Dole out Oversight and Support Responsibility to a Senior Manager: to maintain a strategic distance from miscommunication, struggle, and impasses over pivotal choices 4. Utilize Rigorous Project Management and Seasoned Project Leaders: to force control, structure, and a mutual feeling of direction over the locations.5. Select a Lead Site: guaranteed brief dynamic and a venture effectively conveyed on schedule and on spending 6. Contribute Time Defining The Innovation: so everybody chipping away at the task has a similar comprehension of the objectives and their individual commitments to them. 7. Allot Resources On the Basis of Capability, Not Availability: Teams are chosen not on the grounds that they are the best qualified but since they are accessible at the time , when assets opened up somewhere else, this module was moved to a group that had the important capacities , however by at that point, resolve had been imprinted, time squandered, and costs increased.8. BuildÃ Enough Knowledge Overlap for Collaboration: so as to guarantee basic interdependencies between modules. 9. Breaking point the Number of Subcontractors and Partners: to confine the extra multifaceted nature and time attempting to oversee various accomplices. 10. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Rely Solely on Technology for Communication: normal eye to eye correspondences are significant so as to drive extends forward, share information, and fortify trust among groups and venture leaders.Article Critique:The article unmistakably states 10 guidelines that are significant for overseeing worldwide advancements in the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. As they have done investigates on organizations that known for their high advancement spend for over 10 years so as to introduce a lot of rules for effectively overseeing worldwide development ventures. The Authors distinguished the issues that MNCs face plainly in the article and their models incorporate enormous MNCs like Citibank, HP, Hitachi, Infosys, Intel, LG Electronics, Novartis, Philips, Samsung, Siemens, Vodafone, and Xerox in the article which gives extraordinary validity to their rules for overseeing worldwide innovations.However, the article could be viewed as being exceptionally conventional and each standard in the article ought to be all the more extravagantly clarified and a guide for actualizing those guidelines. Furthermore, this ought to have been tended to as the confinement of the article. Then again, this review gave by the writers gives the perusers a valid statement to begin from, particularly in the event that they are to comprehend what overseeing advancement in a MNC implies. Moreover other outer references are affirming the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. Concerning the subsequent guideline, different business colleges teachers are affirming a similar thought like Rita Gunther McGrath educa tor at Columbia Business School.In her book How the Growth Outliers Do It. Ã¢â¬Å"Stability is the thing that empowers these organizations to improve and to keep up consistent development. Combined with straightforward qualities, it permits representatives to feel sure about facing the challenges that experimentation requires.Ã¢â¬ Google Co-organizer, Larry Page, had Google Books for quite a while. Individuals thought it was excessively insane even to attempt, yet he felt free to purchase a scanner and snared it in his office. He started checking pages, coordinated to what extent it took, ran the numbers and acknowledged it is conceivable to bring the worldÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢ books on the web. Today, Google Books Search record contains more than 10 million books.This model shows that it is so imperative to begin little for huge activities to prevail as the writers plainly expressed in the principal rule in the article. Other writing was seen as supporting the job of the board talked abou t in a few guidelines in the article. Ã¢â¬Å"The discoveries uncover that administration contribution has a positive and noteworthy effect on all components of development included. It is additionally discovered that hierarchical advancement has an intervening impact on the relationship between the board inclusion and specialized innovation.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The job of the executives contribution in innovationÃ¢â¬ by Stanley Kam Sing Wong distributed by Emerald Group Publishing Limited)Concerning the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s last principle about correspondence, the instance of Toyota Ã¢â¬Å"The Americanization of a Japanese IconÃ¢â¬ plainly clarifies the significance of not depending on innovation alone for correspondence. Ã¢â¬Å"The Fact is That Toyota and itÃ¢â¬â¢s U.S auxiliaries donÃ¢â¬â¢t consistently agree, particularly with regards to settling on plan decisions for the American market. Once in a while their contentions are over little issues, different occasions there are conf licts over critical item procedure decisions.Ã¢â¬ Conclusion:The Authors effectively figured out how to give the peruser an outline of how to oversee advancement in a MNC. In addition, other writing and models was seen as supporting the writers perspective. Be that as it may, it would have been of more advantage if there were increasingly explicit guides to expound how this principles could be executed effectively every one of these standards were expressed and a rules
Friday, August 21, 2020
10 Best Study Snacks to Keep You Going The Best Study Snacks to Keep You Fueled and Focused The Best Study Snacks to Keep You Fueled and Focused Everyone loves taking a snack break. But what if we told you that snacking was actually good for your study habits? Study snacks are actually an important part of your productivity. Your body needs the fuel to keep your energy levels up and your brain going so you can crush your assignments and ace your tests. The perfect study snack should meet the following criteria: tastes delicious, contains the right nutrients, and doesnât break your student budget. Luckily, weâve compiled a list of some of our favourite choices. 1. Banana Peanut Butter Roll-ups This banana, peanut butter, and whole grain combination will boost your energy and give you the carbs you need to stay awake and focused. Bananas contain electrolytes and potassium, while peanut butter is packed with protein. Just take a whole wheat wrap, spread peanut butter, and place a banana in the middle. Roll it up around the banana, then slice it into bite sized pieces. 2. Greek Yogurt Parfait This is one of our favourite study snacks because it tastes more like dessert than it does a snack! Greek yogurt is full of protein, while blueberries are a superfood that power your body with antioxidants, and granola adds a touch of carbs to give you energy. Just pile these items together and youâve got your snack. 3. Sriracha Popcorn Who doesnât love popcorn? This spicy take on the classic movie snack is a lighter version that will rev up your senses and curb those munchies without packing on the calories. All you need to do is pop popcorn, melt butter, stir in sriracha, and youâve got sriracha popcorn. 4. Hard Boiled Eggs Eggs contain mind-fueling Omega 3âs, as well as other nutrients that can keep your brain alert and focused. If youâre not big on hard boiled eggs, make them whatever way you like them. 5. Avocado Toast While this snack has gained a pretty hefty reputation with Millennials, avocado toast is actually packed with good-for-you nutrients. Paired with whole or multigrain toast, youâve got a great study food. If youâre sick of the plain version, try some of these kicked-up versions or experiment with your own combinations. 6. Trail Mix This classic snack is so versatile, you can take it to class, outdoors, and even to the movies (but donât show the usher). Most trail mixes consist of these base items: nuts and/or seeds, dried fruit, grains, and something sweet. What you choose to include is up to you. 7. String Cheese Choose a low-fat version of this childhood favourite, and youâve got a great study snack thatâs high in protein and calcium. This also provides you with a fun little break as you peel off the cheese like you did as a kidâ¦ for nostalgic reasons, obviously. 8. Granola Bars When in doubt, reach for a granola bar. This is a great go-to snack that provides you with protein, energy, and fiber. Just be careful to avoid the brands that contain a lot of sugar, as this will cause you to burn out very soon. 9. Veggies and Hummus This is an easy, inexpensive snack that youâll never have to feel guilty about. Hummus provides enough protein and fiber to keep your energy levels up and kick that 3pm slump to the curb. You can also find hummus in a variety of flavours, so youâll be able to find your perfect blend. 10. Roasted Chickpeas Speaking of chickpeas, these little protein powerhouses are also delicious when they are roasted. They fill you up and keep you going, no matter how late you stay up. Many stores sell their own variety of this snack, but itâs also super easy to make yourself. Here are 3 different recipes to get you started. Still Not Keeping up With Your Schoolwork? If youâve hit your breaking point and canât focus on your studies any longer, Homework Help Global provides services that can make a difference in your life. Our team of expert, academic writers provide custom essay services that will help you get ahead in your classes and take a load off your shoulders. References Baker, L. (n.d.) Spicy sriracha popcorn. Wayfair. Retrieved from SSAID=314743refid=SS314743creative=65867m=11035. Breene, S. (2014). 21 healthier trail mix recipes to make yourself. Greatist. Retrieved from 21-healthier-trail-mix-ideas. Durand, F. (2016). 11 easy ways to fancy up your avocado toast. Kitchn. Retrieved from 11-easy-ways-to-fancy-up-your-avocado-toast-219143. Food Network Kitchen. (2016). Roasted chickpeas 3 ways. The Food Network. Retrieved from . Szalay, J. (2017). Bananas: Health benefits, risks, nutrition facts. Live Science. Retrieved from . 10 Best Study Snacks to Keep You Going The Best Study Snacks to Keep You Fueled and Focused The Best Study Snacks to Keep You Fueled and Focused Everyone loves taking a snack break. But what if we told you that snacking was actually good for your study habits? Study snacks are actually an important part of your productivity. Your body needs the fuel to keep your energy levels up and your brain going so you can crush your assignments and ace your tests. The perfect study snack should meet the following criteria: tastes delicious, contains the right nutrients, and doesnât break your student budget. Luckily, weâve compiled a list of some of our favourite choices. 1. Banana Peanut Butter Roll-ups This banana, peanut butter, and whole grain combination will boost your energy and give you the carbs you need to stay awake and focused. Bananas contain electrolytes and potassium, while peanut butter is packed with protein. Just take a whole wheat wrap, spread peanut butter, and place a banana in the middle. Roll it up around the banana, then slice it into bite sized pieces. 2. Greek Yogurt Parfait This is one of our favourite study snacks because it tastes more like dessert than it does a snack! Greek yogurt is full of protein, while blueberries are a superfood that power your body with antioxidants, and granola adds a touch of carbs to give you energy. Just pile these items together and youâve got your snack. 3. Sriracha Popcorn Who doesnât love popcorn? This spicy take on the classic movie snack is a lighter version that will rev up your senses and curb those munchies without packing on the calories. All you need to do is pop popcorn, melt butter, stir in sriracha, and youâve got sriracha popcorn. 4. Hard Boiled Eggs Eggs contain mind-fueling Omega 3âs, as well as other nutrients that can keep your brain alert and focused. If youâre not big on hard boiled eggs, make them whatever way you like them. 5. Avocado Toast While this snack has gained a pretty hefty reputation with Millennials, avocado toast is actually packed with good-for-you nutrients. Paired with whole or multigrain toast, youâve got a great study food. If youâre sick of the plain version, try some of these kicked-up versions or experiment with your own combinations. 6. Trail Mix This classic snack is so versatile, you can take it to class, outdoors, and even to the movies (but donât show the usher). Most trail mixes consist of these base items: nuts and/or seeds, dried fruit, grains, and something sweet. What you choose to include is up to you. 7. String Cheese Choose a low-fat version of this childhood favourite, and youâve got a great study snack thatâs high in protein and calcium. This also provides you with a fun little break as you peel off the cheese like you did as a kidâ¦ for nostalgic reasons, obviously. 8. Granola Bars When in doubt, reach for a granola bar. This is a great go-to snack that provides you with protein, energy, and fiber. Just be careful to avoid the brands that contain a lot of sugar, as this will cause you to burn out very soon. 9. Veggies and Hummus This is an easy, inexpensive snack that youâll never have to feel guilty about. Hummus provides enough protein and fiber to keep your energy levels up and kick that 3pm slump to the curb. You can also find hummus in a variety of flavours, so youâll be able to find your perfect blend. 10. Roasted Chickpeas Speaking of chickpeas, these little protein powerhouses are also delicious when they are roasted. They fill you up and keep you going, no matter how late you stay up. Many stores sell their own variety of this snack, but itâs also super easy to make yourself. Here are 3 different recipes to get you started. Still Not Keeping up With Your Schoolwork? If youâve hit your breaking point and canât focus on your studies any longer, Homework Help Global provides services that can make a difference in your life. Our team of expert, academic writers provide custom essay services that will help you get ahead in your classes and take a load off your shoulders. References Baker, L. (n.d.) Spicy sriracha popcorn. Wayfair. Retrieved from SSAID=314743refid=SS314743creative=65867m=11035. Breene, S. (2014). 21 healthier trail mix recipes to make yourself. Greatist. Retrieved from 21-healthier-trail-mix-ideas. Durand, F. (2016). 11 easy ways to fancy up your avocado toast. Kitchn. Retrieved from 11-easy-ways-to-fancy-up-your-avocado-toast-219143. Food Network Kitchen. (2016). Roasted chickpeas 3 ways. The Food Network. Retrieved from . Szalay, J. (2017). Bananas: Health benefits, risks, nutrition facts. Live Science. Retrieved from .
Sunday, May 24, 2020
The True Monsters In Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Frankenstein, Victor Frankenstein creates a monster whose appearance brings ineffable terror and destruction into his life. However, the monsterÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance and actions are not an accurate representation of the monster and are influenced by many outward factors that ultimately trace back to his creator. The monsterÃ¢â¬â¢s grotesque outward appearance acts as a mirror as it reflects the true inward qualities of Victor as well as shows the flaws and abnormalities of the relationship between Victor, society, and the monster. Ever since Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s work gained its popularity, society has been distorting and exaggerating the image and horrors of FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s monster. Although the monsterÃ¢â¬â¢s outward appearance is depicted as hideous and deformed in both the novel and the commercial industry, the true horror of the monster is the reflection of his creator, Victor Frankenstein. The monster acts as a mirror into the soul of Victor and showcases his hidden morals and beliefs. Through his creation, Victor tries to quench his thirst of knowledge and power. By delving into the unnatural elements of nature, Victor feverously attempts to obtain a Godlike dominance. This obsession for power and knowledge is seen in the structure and form of the monster itself. The monsterÃ¢â¬â¢s abnormally large characteristics and measurements shows the even more unnatural cravings that Victor feels. However, once his creation comes to life, Victor becomes petrified byShow MoreRelatedMary Shelleys Frankens tein: A Gothic Novel1595 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Mary ShellyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein is one of the greatest Gothic novels to come out during the Romantic Period. Frankenstein is a prime example of what a Gothic novel should present to its reader through the genreÃ¢â¬â¢s twisted themes. Even though it was written in the Romantic period, Mary Shelley still wrote Frankenstein to be a Gothic work of literature. Many characteristics of Gothic novel can be seen within this novel. Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s outstanding novel Frankenstein is a prime example of a Gothic novelRead MoreThe Guilt Of The Death Of Others By Mary Shelley1307 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescharacters in her writings. Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s guilt is significant to the guilt of her characters because they are created by her. Through them she is able to express her own guilt for the death of others. The characters inside Mary Shelley s writings have losses and gains similar to her own. In her writings, Shelley would take a theme th at was evident in her own life and apply them to her writings. Ã¢â¬Å"Mary Shelley, in her second novel [Valperga] as well as in her first [Frankenstein], is interested in takingRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein 1306 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesusually associated with a monster? Monsters are usually portrayed as green, slimy aliens with big, bulging eyes, extra limbs, scaly backs and rows upon rows of sharp teeth.. However, a monster does not necessarily have to possess hideous physical features in order to be deemed one; a monster can simply be someone who causes death and other forms of tragedy. Mary Shelley has been surrounded by death her entire life and she felt like a monster, such as the one in her novel Frankenstein. She felt responsibleRead MoreThe Concepts of Knowledge and Happiness in Mary Shelleys Frankenstein1011 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesaspires to become greater than his nature will allow (Shelley 60). In Mary Shelley s Frankenstein, she expresses her beliefs r egarding the danger of pursuing happiness through the attainment of knowledge, because true happiness is found in the emotional connections established between people. The pursuit of knowledge is not necessarily an evil thing, but it can cause destruction when it is pursued beyond natural limits. Victor Frankenstein becomes a slave to his passion for learning in more thanRead MoreFrankenstein And NatureÃ¢â¬â¢S Love. From Stupendous Glaciers1053 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFrankenstein and NatureÃ¢â¬â¢s Love From stupendous glaciers to rolling green hills, there is no denying that Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein captures natureÃ¢â¬â¢s most majestic and extraordinary sights. There is also no denying that natureÃ¢â¬â¢s enchantment and beauty surrounds FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s intense plot. Hence, the sublime alpine ecosystem where Frankenstein takes place has a great impact on the characters of the novel. As she wrote Frankenstein, Mary Shelley also experienced a magnificent and grand environmentRead MoreMary Shelleys Frankenstein Feminism1429 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRobert Youshock Prof. Matthew Gerber HIST 1012 10/19/18 Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein: Feminism before it was mainstream? Writing a paper on the topic of Frankenstein days before Halloween might give you the wrong idea- lets clear something up straight away Frankenstein is the doctor not the monster and the monster doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a name (which we later learn is mildly important to the story). You see, Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein is arguably a story of creation, murder, love, and learning amongst manyRead MoreThe Consequences Of Technology On Mary Shelley s Frankenstein Essay1703 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Consequences of Technology Revealed in Shelley s Frankenstein In Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein, written in the late nineteenth century, the author proposes that knowledge and technology can be dangerous to individuals and all of humanity. Frankenstein was one of the first cautionary tales about scientific research. Shelley s novel offers profound insight of the consequences of morally insensitive scientific and technological research. Learn from me. . . at least by my exampleRead MoreMary Shelley: Her life influence in Frankenstein. Mary Shelleys life hardships show up subtley throughout her novel Frankenstein.1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMary Wollstonecraft Shelley endured many hardships during her life. Some of these included her mother dieing during childbirth, her loathing stepmother, and later in life, the death of her beloved husband. Although she maintained a strong relationship with her father, it did not cover-up the absence of a strong maternal figure. Mary Shelley s novel Frankenstein, was influenced by the pain she encountered in her life. Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin was born on August 30, 1797 to the couple of Mary WollstonecraftRead MoreA Fit Of Enthusiastic Madness : An Essay Of Insanity1427 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInsanity in Frankenstein Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus is chiefly considered to be a horror novel. The books author, Mary Shelley, masterfully weaves a story that has petrified audiences for centuries with its grotesque nature and disturbing events. However it is clear that both the characterization of Victor Frankenstein and his fallen angel, the Monster, portray an additional frightening aspect of the story; their mutual descent into hysteric madness.With a deft hand, Mary Shelley successfullyRead MoreForbidden Or Unethical? Mary Shelley s Frankenstein1553 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesUnethical? Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Frankenstein may be a warning and caution to some that delving into forbidden subjects could potentially be catastrophic. Victor Frankenstein created a horrible creation and explored the unknown where no man should go and it affected his life until the end. Exploring a subject that presents itself as unethical just as Victor did, ends with dissatisfaction, obsession, and a feeling of regret that lingers forever. The novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley that will always
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 926 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/03/18 Category Analytics Essay Level High school Tags: Characterization Essay Did you like this example? Blood-material interactions are critical for the performance and biocompatibility of biomedical devices implanted in thousands of patients every day. When an implant is introduced into the body, protein adsorption and activation of complement proteins occur on the foreign surface [1-3] and a series of interactions happen , firstly, water molecules reach the surface of the implant and build a water shell around it on a time scale that is of the order of nanoseconds. The interaction of the water molecules with the surface of the implant is dependent on the surface properties of the kind of material the implant is made of. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Electrochemical Characterization of Bovine Serum Albumin Adsorption" essay for you Create order This property also determines which proteins and other molecules will adhere following the formation of the hydration shell. Secondly, from a few seconds to hours after implantation, the implant becomes covered in an adsorbed layer of proteins primarily present in the extracellular matrix. Thirdly, cells eventually reach the surface interacting through the protein covering; thus cell-surface interactions can be described as the interaction between cells and surface-bound proteins. This stage occurs from as early as minutes or up to days after implantation . As the time after material implantation increases from a few hours to several days, adhesion and migration followed by differentiation of cells occur. This third stage is influenced by biological molecules (extracellular matrix proteins, cell membrane proteins and cytoskeleton proteins); the biophysical environment and the evolving material physicochemical characteristics at the surface (chemistry, nano and micro-topographies); and the released soluble products from the material and its micro-structure (porosity) [5, 6]. The fourth and final stage in the useful life of the implant, which can last from a few days (biodegradable suture) up to several decades (total hip replacement), is the continuing development of the early implant stages. Adverse responses (clots or fibrous capsule formation, for example) and implant failure can occur Ã¢â¬Å" processes that can result from material degradation or mineralization . Thus, the initial protein adsorption onto a biomaterial surface plays a key role in how the body responds to an implanted biomaterial. Surface modifications are often intentionally made to the surface of implants in order to improve their functionality and biocompatibility. The future development of improved biomaterials and novel coating techniques looks towards promoting fast healing and integration to prevent implant failure. Protein adsorption is crucial in cell adhesion for tissue regeneration, even though frequent biofouling is seen as an undesirable process in some applications. Protein adsorption on biomaterial surface is therefore of interest for bioengineering research Human serum albumin (HSA), a globular protein, is the most abundant component of many biofluids, serving as the transport of various metabolites and the regulation of the osmotic pressure [7, 8]. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is used for protein adsorption studies since its structure is similar to the HSA structure , with nearly the same isoelectric point [10, 11] and molecular weight  and also because of its low-cost. Albumin is important in biomedical applications as it has been identified on implants ex vivo [12, 13]. There are a few studies available in the literature on protein adsorption on nickel-titanium materials (nitinol) . One of these, by Shabalovskaya on polished, chemically-etched, heat treated and electropolished nickel-titanium surfaces , suggested that the amount of albumin adsorbed should be proportional to the nickel surface content of the alloy. Michiardi et al. have established a correlation between protein adsorption and surface energy on oxidized nickel-titanium surfaces . Moreover, Clarke et al. found that the surface roughness and hydrophobicity appeared to have no effect on albumin adsorption . Herein, we coated nickel-titanium with two phenolic compounds: pyrogallol and tannic acid, a coating procedure previously developed by Messersmith et al. on different surfaces such as gold, titanium dioxide, stainless steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene . Nickel-titanium has been coated here with phenolic compounds because these bio-inspired compounds have anti-inflammatory properties Ã¢â¬Å" they are anti-proliferative agents for normal re-endothelialisation, nontoxic to mammalian cells [18, 19]. Polyphenols are also able to scavenge reactive oxygen species likely to oxidatively damage endothelial cells. In the presence of a metal, phenolic compounds are capable of forming metal ion complexes producing chelate ions; and on a surface, they build thin adherent films that induce minor changes in surface roughness [18, 19]. In this study, BSA adsorption on phenolic coated nickel-titanium has been investigated by different electrochemical tests. Firstly, the open circuit potential analysis (OCP), this type of measurement provides information about the natural corrosion behavior of the system undisturbed by any external voltage or current source and, therefore, in the absence of induced corrosion effects . The corrosion potentials (EOCP) reflect the composite results of electrochemical reactions taking place at the surface/solution interface. Therefore, the variation in the corrosion potential, with immersion time, can be employed to study the electrochemical processes. Secondly, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) Ã¢â¬Å" EIS is a non-destructive sensitive technique enabling the detection of any changes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface by the study of the impedance of an electrochemical system considered as a function of the frequency of an applied AC wave . The Nyquist p lots and Bode diagrams from spectra analyses allow understanding the processes that occur at the metal/electrolyte boundary before, during and after protein adsorption on an electrode surface by applying the equivalent electrical circuit approach. Additionally, the electron transfer-initiated chemical reactions at the interface surface / protein were assessed by cyclic voltammetry. Nickel ion release has also been studied to investigate the possible diffusion of ions on the adsorbed protein layer. The objective of this paper was to study the protein interaction on phenolic coated nickel-titanium surface and simulate its adsorption in a physiological environment. This information is of clinical importance for future implantable biomedical devices to minimize ailing and failing implants.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Describe:- (i) how induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are isolated (ii) how iPSCs can be used to study human development (iii) how iPSCs can be used to model human disease and to develop therapies for degenerative disease i) iPSCs are adult stem cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to behave like the pluripotent stem cells found in embryos, i.e. can differentiate into any cell type in the human body. This was first completed successfully in mice in 2006 by Shinya Yamanaka and his team (Takahashi et al., 2006), then in humans in 2007 both by Yamanaka (Takahashi et al., 2007), and by James Thomson and his team in America independently (Yu, et al., 2007). Yamanaka and ThomsonÃ¢â¬â¢s methods were similar. In the report by Yu etÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦964-965). ii) Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells isolated from blastocysts, and are highly useful in studying human development (Itzkovitz-Eldor et al., 2000 p. 88). Although the National Institute of Health states that Ã¢â¬Å"it is not known if iPSCs and embryonic stem cells differ in clinically significant waysÃ¢â¬ , iPSCs are already being used to achieve the same results as ESCs in some applications without the use of embryos, removing the ethical concern associated with ESCs (National Institutes of Health, 2009). ESCs are capable of differentiating into all cell types, and can be used as a source of differentiated cells. In the report by Itskovitz-Eldor et al., they discuss the induced differentiation of ESCs in suspension into embryoid bodies, including the three embryonic germ layers. The authors state that Ã¢â¬Å"the ability to induce formation of human embryoid bodies that contain cells of neuronal, hematopoietic and cardiac origins will be useful in studying ea rly human embryonic developmentÃ¢â¬ (Itzkovitz-Eldor et al., 2000 p. 88). This is invaluable in terms of studying the early stages of human foetal development. As iPSCs are better understood, and the methods of generating them are refined, they have the potential to play an increasingly integral role in our study of human development, in place of ESCs. In the report by Itzkovitz-Eldor et al. it is noted that the abilityShow MoreRelatedProgress in the Reasearch on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells 528 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesstudy in stem cell research. They reprogrammed mouse skin fibroblasts by introduction of four transcription factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc and generated cells almost indistinguishable from ES cells. They named these cells induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) (Takahashi K., et al., 2006). An year later, James A. Thomson et al. replaced Oct4 and oncogenic c-Myc with Lin28 and Nanog decreasing the risk of cancer formation (Yu J., et al., 2007). We need to take into consideration that cell typesRead MoreAnalysis Of Adipose Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells4532 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesAnalysis of adipose derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCÃ¢â¬â¢s) microRNA (miRNA) expression profile over multiple passages and pancreatic Ã ²-cell miRNA expression profile post differentiation from iPSCÃ¢â¬â¢s. Simplified title Improvement of stem cell differentiation to pancreatic Ã ²-cell for transplantation into diabetics. 2) Project summary Ethical concerns regarding the use of embryo-derived embryonic stem cells (ES), and the immune response elicited by differentiated ES cells, are being circumventedRead MoreCan Skin Dermal Papilla (DP) Cells Differentiate into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells?578 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages(DP) cells can differentiate into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by using the transcription factor, OCT4, instead of using all four transcription factor, OCT4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, which are usually used to differentiate somatic cells into stem cells. The scientists came up with the question because two out of the four transcription factors, Klf4 and c-Myc, are oncogenic gene, thereby it is best to replace these genes with other safer alternatives. Reprogramming cells into induced pluripotentRead MoreInduced Pluripotent Stem Cells Essay1759 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Methods of Production, Characterization and Applications to Medicine StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Name University Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Methods of Production, Characterization and Applications to Medicine Introduction By definition, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are somatic cells with preprogrammed features (Kamath et al. 2017). In essence, they are often modified to mimic embryonic stem cells through the expression of ectopic factors linked to geneRead MoreInduced Pluripotent Stem Cells And The Maintenance Of Neural Crest Stem Cell1331 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Induced Pluripotent Stem CellsÃ¢â¬âDerived Neural Crest Stem Cells and the maintenance of Neural crest stem cell multipotency Stem cells are unspecialized cells, which have the potential to develop into several different cell typesÃ¢â¬âmuscle cells, brain cells, skin cells, or red blood cellsÃ¢â¬âduring early development. Stem cells continuously divide in order to replace other cells. As stem cells divide, they have the potential to develop into a specialized cell or remain a stem cell. Induced pluripotentRead MoreDescribe How Mature Somatic Cells Can Be Reprogrammed to Become Pluripotent991 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestechnology, it is possible to reprogram matured somatic cells in pluripotent cells by introducing factors that can induce cell in situ reprogramming. (1) This technique is highly useful in medicine, including acting as a model for drug and clinical testing, development of drugs. Pluripotent stem cells are the stem cells that can only differentiate into a limited range of differentiated cells. (2) They have the ability to give rise to all somatic cells from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, as well as gametesRead MoreA Research Study On Stem Cell Research1324 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslike this. He knows that stem cells could help cure him from his misery, so he has been fighting and fighting for stem cell research to be fully funded in America. Stem cells are cells that have the skill to change into any type of cell in the human body (Lewis). These cells could be put anywhere ill in the body to make it healthy again. Imagine all of the people with chronicle diseases and cancer being able to have hope for being happy and healthy again. Also, these stem cells can fix damaged organsRead MoreBiotechnology: A Tool of Body Manipulation Essay896 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSum, 2013. In the public performance the artist donated her skin cells for transformation through iPSC technology into induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs). Challenging the existing ethical dilemma around embryonic cell research, she allowed her adult cells to be then transformed into blood, brain and heart cells. As the creation of her second self outside once body, the artist exhibited the living cells then in the gallery space exercising the non-fixed and non-givenRead MoreStem Cell Research : Ethics, Cloning And Curing The Disease1220 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOutline Stem Cell Research - Ethics, Cloning and Curing the Disease Introduction According to former Speaker of the House, John Boehner, Ã¢â¬ Stem cell research must be carried out in an ethical manner in a way that respects the sanctity of human life.Ã¢â¬ In recent events, stem cell research has caught the attention of the nation and stirred up controversy about the research and ethics along with it. Ethically, stem cell research has caught more attention than the research behind it. Stem cell researchRead MoreThe Debate Over Embryonic Stem Cell Research1710 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEmbryonic Stem Cell Research Embryonic stem cells, according to the National Institute of Health, are cells obtained from embryos that are prepared from fertilized eggs which have been collected through the in vitro technique; in specialized clinics. Scientists use the stem cell research to have a better idea about the evolution, aging, and disease. Thus, they keep track of the stem cells progress across the lifetime; this tracking process can help scientists to figure out the genetic mutations
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the IT Risk Management and Security in Victorian Government. Answer: Introduction The application of applying principles of risk management in an IT organization that provides management for the risks and security associated with the IT field is the process called the IT risk management process. It is combination of culture system and processes that has been undertaken by the organizations that identifies and coordinates management of risk. This risk management to achieve the objectives they aim and to prevent the harm should spread awareness and evidence that explains the need of risk management for the further decision making process in the organizations (Chance Brooks 2015). The methodology of risk management should identify and characterize the threats, determine the general impact of the risk, identify the way to reduce the risks and hence prioritize the risk reduction based on the planned strategy in IT sectors. The risks are managed in the sectors of ownership, involvement, adoption, influence and the use of IT in a larger enterprise. The several numbers o f standards provides general guidance on the practice of risk management. There are much benefits of using intrusion detection system, firewalls and vulnerability scanner to reduce the risk and can be used by common people very easily. In this report we are going to discuss the current security risks and concerns in VIC government using a diagram. Further explaining the areas of risk exposure in the organization and analyzing the accidental threats. Justifying the threats and ranking accordingly focusing on the importance. Explaining and analyzing the security guideline of the private and public organization. Moreover discussing about the challenges faced by the by the VIC government during risk management as well as evaluating the available approach of VIC government for risk control and mitigation with relatable examples. Hence, critically analyzing approaches for mitigating security risks and evaluating the risks management in terms of vulnerabilities targeted by hackers. Identifying the security risks and concerns in VIC government Risk is basically the effect of uncertainty over the objectives. But there is a prior difference between risks and uncertainty (will be discussing later in this report). The risk management process hence implies: 1. The analysis, assessment, identification and prioritizing the risk for the achievement of the organizational objectives, 2. Allocating the resources to monitor, communicate, minimize and control risk impact that minimizes the realization of opportunities, 3. Coordinating to the activities (Chance Brooks 2015). The VIC government deals with several processes as mentioned above. The platform the government mainly concerns about are: Archives and Record management Ethical Decision making Information Risk Management Security Management Safety Response Using the Social Media Here we are going to discuss about the Risk Management in the Victorian Government and its impact on the private and public sector of the country (Daly, Cooper Ma 2014). Figure 1: VGPB strategic overview plan 2016-2021 (Source: By the Author) The current security risk in the Victorian Government is mainly the transport operators. This area can be seriously affected by the security risks. Normal level of services can be more cost effective and quicker if the organization prepares and anticipate for the risks (Davies, 2014). The VIC government has worked on this transport sector and produced a Security Risk Assessment Guide, which explains methodology for the small to large transportation operator and the security risk assessment that focuses on the current practices. Identifying areas of Risk Exposure The Victorian Government Purchasing Board (VGPB) was found under the Finance Management Act (FMA) 1994 (Dollard Gordon, 2014). The Victorian Protective Data Security Framework was established under the Privacy and Data Protection Act in 2014 that provides data security obligations to the agencies of Victorian public sector (Glendon, Clarke McKenna, 2016). It builds the security risk management maturity as well as capabilities by using the principles and guidelines that already exists; this reflects the unique operating requirements of the sector. The Victorian government developed the Victorian Protective Data Security Framework (VPDSF) to monitor, establish and assure the security of information within the boundaries of Victorian government. The current security risks and concerns of the VIC government are: to determine the ownership and identify information assess the value of information identifying and managing the data security risks applying needed security measures creating positive security culture maturing the capability of protective data security Across four protective security domains and governance, VPDSF provides the organization data security protection. The Victorian government takes care of the national interest, it remains mandatory for the Protective Security Policy Framework requirements (Hopkin, 2017). On the basis of the above diagram we can note that there are five major levels of VGPB strategy: Vision: This provides leadership of goods and services that delivers value-for-money in government procurement outcomes for Victorian government (Howes et al., 2015). Mission: This level ensures the government the ability to minimize risks and develop the procurement capabilities and enables the accessibility to these procurement opportunities for all business. This also delivers the value-for-money and fit-for opportunity. This policy framework changed the tactics of Victorian Government procure services and goods after being introduced by VGPB: 1. Enhanced and embed VGPB supply policy, 2. Implementation and development of a procurement capability strategy across process, people as well as system, 3. Engaging with suppliers and the market such that to improve business with the public sector of Victorian government, 4. Enlarging the impact of VGPBs on the Victorian public sector procurement, and 5. Measuring the importance and benefits of the framework of VGPB procurement. Directives: This section manages the Value-of-money, Accountability, Probity and Scalability of the framework. The Assurance model aims to enhance the maturity of the protective data security practice of an organization and ensures the protection of information against security breaches. There is a difference between Risk analysis and Risk Exposure. The areas of risk exposure can be part of any and every activity (Jaeger et al., 2013). Risk Exposure provides a measure to the upcoming possibility of losses that may occurs form an activity or event. In IT business risk exposure often use ranks like low, medium-low, medium and high risk exposure depending on the different kind of losses either it is acceptable or unacceptable. This may include legal liability, damaged or loss of property, employees unexpected turnover or in the change in demand of the customers (Kaine et al., 2017). In the Figure 1, the area of higher risk exposure is the Accountability since the accountancy part is risky and can be data breaches by penetrating the security system. The area of low-medium risk is the value of money (Lam, 2014). The third position for medium risk is the scalability and the lowest is the probity since it deals with the public sector. Analysis of Deliberate and Accidental Threats An example of a common threat in VIC: Threats to damage and destroy property- A person can be determined as a threat for another person on not having lawful excuse (Lane et al., 2017) To damage and destroy a property that may belong to himself or any third person To damage and destroy ones own property in complete sense of knowing or believing that the property can endanger the life of others. Threats to kill- A person can be determined as a threat for another person who threatens to kill the other person The other person is intended to fear the threat and hence would be carried out forward Being reckless about the persons intension of fearing the threat can be carried out further The current security risk in the Victorian Government is mainly the transport operators. This area can be seriously affected by the security risks (Liu et al., 2016). Normal level of services can be more cost effective and quicker if the organization prepares and anticipate for the risks. The VIC government has worked on this transport sector and produced a Security Risk Assessment Guide, which explains methodology for the small to large transportation operator and the security risk assessment that focuses on the current practices (McNeil, Frey Embrechts, 2015). The methodology of risk management should identify and characterize the threats, determine the general impact of the risk, identify the way to reduce the risks and hence prioritize the risk reduction based on the planned strategy in IT sectors. On the case study of NSW Government Disaster Recovery, the risks are managed in the sectors of ownership, involvement, adoption, influence and the use of IT in a larger enterprise. Th e several numbers of standards provides general guidance on the practice of risk management. There are much benefits of using intrusion detection system, firewalls and vulnerability scanner to reduce the risk and can be used by common people very easily. Challenges in VIC government The main challenges are faced by the public sector in the VIC government (Nicholson et al., 2015). Hence there are several principle based on which the VIC government should carry forward the risk management via outsourcing: Risk Management Applying technique Importance 1. Creating and protecting the value Mainly incorporated in governance framework Part of organizational culture should be considered Improvement of performance Achievement of the objective 2. Integral part of the agency planning and management process Maintaining the strategic and business planning Part of change management process Avoids delicacy Guides the prioritization Classifies responsibilities 3. Part of Decision making Explicitly incorporated into system design, changes and projects resources allocation Part of staff recruitment and employment arrangement Assist prioritize actions Distinguished alternative course of actions 4. Transparency and Inclusive Scope and methods should be identified for risk monitoring and reporting stakeholders Role of stakeholders within the process of risk management Promotes the line of sight and risk appetite Vulnerabilities identification 5. Tailoring the risk framework is designed and operated to fit with the agencys capabilities and context adequate resources are allocated aligns with agencys external and internal context and risk profile 6. Continual facility improvement risk management system is incorporated in continual improvement systems stakeholder feedback is sought to influence the ongoing development of the risk framework improves agency risk maturity addresses stakeholder expectations to protect community interests Difference between Risk and Uncertainty The main difference between the risk and uncertainty is that risk is an unplanned event and occurrence of risk may affect of the objectives in management (Paschen Beilin, 2017). It may either affect the project positively or negatively hence risk can both be a positive risk as well as a negative risk. The main objective is to minimize the negative strategy impact of risks and to maximize the positive risk responseis the chances of happening positive risks. Risks have been identified during the risk identifying process (Potts, Rajabifard Bennett, 2017). The Unknown risks are those risks which cannot be identified during the risk identification processes. Lack of certainty is known as the uncertainty. The outcome of any event is said to be completely unknown in uncertainty, and it cannot be guessed or measured thus we dont get any background information on certain event. In uncertainty, one completely lacks the information of the event even though it has been identified earlier (Slovic, 2016). In case of such unknown risks, although having the information background, people simply ignores it during the identify risks process. The following are a few differences between risk and uncertainty: The possibility of future outcome cannot be predicted while being in uncertainty Uncertainty is uncontrollable but risk can still be managed Uncertainty cannot be measures and quantified while risk can be One can assign the probability of risk events but with uncertainty one cannot In the considered case study of VIC government the risk and uncertainty are governance and the sector of market approach respectively. Evaluating the availability of VIC government for Risk Control and Mitigation The VIC government has principles of risk management that controls the risk and mitigation of the country IT sector. Cresting and protecting the values Integral part must be created of the agency procession Is the part of the decision making processes Explicitly addresses the uncertainty A systematic, structures and timely maintained operation Based on the best available information Created and developed by the agency Takes the cultural and human factor in account The transparency and inclusiveness Is iterative, dynamic and accessible to the changes Continual improvement facilitates the agency This provides protection against data breaches and cyber crimes occurrence. The application of an integrated risk management information system is quite important for the approach to safety (Sweeting, 2017). The risk exposures in potential business are a measurement against the risk that involves significant priorities. The concept of risk management is to determine the agencys possible risk appetite and the medium of communication, the implementation of agencys risk management framework and its allocation as well as the roles and responsibilities for managing the individual risk. For enhancing the performance of the risk management and decision making of the VIC government the agency applies the following approaches: The continual improvement of risk management techniques and the enhancement of the organizational production Risks, controls and risk treatments on full accountability Risk management application in every decision making process, independent of the level of significance and importance (Warmerdam et al., 2017) Having stakeholders consultation and continual communication risk management of full integration in the agencys governance structure Conclusion An effective management of risk gives rise to some significant improvement in operational profitability and operational effectiveness. An approach to risk management is required in each sector of industry for the better security management and safety process in the near future. This provides protection against data breaches and cyber crimes occurrence. The application of an integrated risk management information system is quite important for the approach to safety. The risk exposures in potential business are a measurement against the risk that involves significant priorities. The concept of risk management is to determine the agencys possible risk appetite and the medium of communication, the implementation of agencys risk management framework and its allocation as well as the roles and responsibilities for managing the individual risk. The approach of effective risk management for corporate and business planning process enables better decision making, establish clear accountability , improves the performances and the outcomes and build confidence in the new opportunity that considers the risk approach. The Victorian Protective Data Security Standards (VPDSS) developed high level mandatory requirements such that to secure the public sector data and to provide the governance across the domains like ICT, physical security, personnel and information. The standard as discussed is durable and hence takes the risk management approach empowering the government business to function safety, security and effectiveness. It also encourages the decision making of the organization and proritiz4e the security effort. A risk management approach requires your organization to ensure information is always adequately protected, by continually assessing security measures against any new or updated threats and vulnerabilities. The adoption of a risk-based approach consistent with the Victorian Government Risk Management Framework (VGRMF) is the fundamental principle of the VPDSF. A flexible approach to implementation of security measures provides your organization with the autonomy to interpret your business needs and articulate your risk tolerance within your operating environment. References Chance, D. M., Brooks, R. (2015).Introduction to derivatives and risk management. Cengage Learning. Daly, D., Cooper, P., Ma, Z. (2014). Understanding the risks and uncertainties introduced by common assumptions in energy simulations for Australian commercial buildings.Energy and Buildings,75, 382-393. Davies, J. C. (2014).Comparing environmental risks: tools for setting government priorities. Routledge. Dollard, M. F., Gordon, J. A. (2014).Evaluation of a participatory risk management work stress intervention(Vol. 21, No. 1, p. 27). Educational Publishing Foundation. Glendon, A. I., Clarke, S., McKenna, E. (2016).Human safety and risk management. Crc Press. Goode, N., Salmon, P. M., Spencer, C., McArdle, D., Archer, F. (2017). Defining disaster resilience: comparisons from key stakeholders involved in emergency management in Victoria, Australia.Disasters,41(1), 171-193. Hopkin, P. (2017).Fundamentals of risk management: understanding, evaluating and implementing effective risk management. Kogan Page Publishers. Howes, M., Tangney, P., Reis, K., Grant-Smith, D., Heazle, M., Bosomworth, K., Burton, P. (2015). Towards networked governance: improving interagency communication and collaboration for disaster risk management and climate change adaptation in Australia.Journal of Environmental Planning and Management,58(5), 757-776. Jaeger, C. C., Webler, T., Rosa, E. A., Renn, O. (2013).Risk, uncertainty and rational action. Routledge. Kaine, G., Young, J., Lourey, R., Greenhalgh, S. (2017). Policy choice framework: guiding policy makers in changing farmer behavior.Ecology and Society,22(2). Lam, J. (2014).Enterprise risk management: from incentives to controls. John Wiley Sons. Lane, R., Bettini, Y., McCallum, T., Head, B. W. (2017). The interaction of risk allocation and governance arrangements in innovative urban stormwater and recycling projects.Landscape and Urban Planning,164, 37-48. Liu, L. C., Li, Q., Zhang, J. T., Cao, D. (2016). Toward a framework of environmental risk management for CO2 geological storage in China: gaps and suggestions for future regulations.Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change,21(2), 191-207. McNeil, A. J., Frey, R., Embrechts, P. (2015).Quantitative risk management: Concepts, techniques and tools. Princeton university press. Nicholson, E., Regan, T. J., Auld, T. D., Burns, E. L., Chisholm, L. A., English, V., ... Metcalfe, D. J. (2015). Towards consistency, rigour and compatibility of risk assessments for ecosystems and ecological communities.Austral Ecology,40(4), 347-363. Paschen, J. A., Beilin, R. (2017). How a risk focus in emergency management can restrict community resiliencea case study from Victoria, Australia.International Journal of Wildland Fire,26(1), 1-9. Potts, K. E., Rajabifard, A., Bennett, R. M. (2017). Supporting the risk management process with land information: a case study of Australia.Disasters,41(2), 352-364. Slovic, P. (2016).The perception of risk. Routledge. Sweeting, P. (2017).Financial enterprise risk management. Cambridge University Press. Warmerdam, A., Newnam, S., Sheppard, D., Griffin, M., Stevenson, M. (2017). Workplace road safety risk management: an investigation into Australian practices.Accident Analysis Prevention,98, 64-73.
Sunday, April 5, 2020
Macbeth And Power The struggle for power and control in Shakespear's Macbeth is evident from the beginning as Macbeth strives to be crowned by chance and Lady Macbeth prefers a slightly quicker more violent approach. Macbeth begins the play with no power but with a small amount of the control, hence Lady Macbeth had the power and most of the control. As they silently battle for control over their household and their future Macbeth kills in order for them to advance in social standing. It was Lady Macbeth's desire for control over her husband that set him on his course of destruction and murder. Shakespeare portrays Lady Macbeth as a ruthless, overpowering woman who dominates her husband and his actions. Lady Macbeth makes Macbeth's do what she determines to be best for him by lowering his self-esteem so that he must do what she requests in order for him to gain his self-respect back. She says such things as, "When you durst do it, then you [will be] a man" (1.7.49). It is Lady Macbeth who comes up with the plan to kill Duncan, because she knows that Macbeth would never commit such an act on his own without her pushing him to because Macbeth's nature "is too full o' the milk of human kindness / To catch the nearest way" (1.5.15,16). She develops the plan and organizes the details while expecting Macbeth to merely follow her orders. This becomes evident when she says to him, "You shall put / This night's great business into my dispatch"(1.5.66,67) and "Leave all the rest to me"(1.5.72). She intends to keep him under her control by making decisions for him and not allowing him to think for himself. When Macbeth becomes indecisive about her plan to kill Duncan, she labels him a coward when she says, "Art thou afeard / To be the same in thine own act and valour / As thou art in desire" (1.7.39,41). Macbeth defends himself by explaining that he is doing all that can be expected of a man and if he does more then no man shall he be, she claims that no ?real' man would back down and refuse to follow through with an act he had agreed to. After all if she had sworn, as Macbeth has to killing Duncan, she would, "While [her baby] was smiling in [her] face, / Have pluck'd [her] nipple from his boneless gums, / And dash'd [it's] brains out" (1.7.54-9). This shows more of her evil side and also labels her as more of a man then Macbeth is. This along with other harshly spoken words finally convinces Macbeth to kill Duncan and so his killing spree begins. Once Macbeth follows through with his wife's plan to murder the king he is filled immediately with guilt, unlike his wife who says, "A little water clears us of this deed" (2.2.67). After his first murder Macbeth begins to feel a sense of empowerment in his own life and he starts to take charge of his own actions. The first evidence of this is when Macbeth kills Duncan's groomsmen without Lady Macbeth's permission or consent. Upon discovering her husbands unplanned murders Lady Macbeth is so shocked that she faints. Macbeth no longer needs Lady Macbeth to make his decisions for him, he has gained the power and control, but because she made him kill Duncan he can now kill more readily than he could have without her. This is evident as he plans the murder of Banquo and Fleance and hires the murderers himself without feeling any guilt or consulting his wife at all. In fact, Lady Macbeth urges him to forget what has happened in the past and move on. She says to him, "What's done is done"(3.2.12), "You must leave this"(3.2.35). Macbeth, however, with his new sense of control, refuses to submit to her command. He goes on with his plans to kill Banquo and later decides to kill Macduff's family in the following lines; The very firstlings of my heart shall be The firstlings of my hand. And even now, To crown my thoughts with acts, be it thought and done; The castle of Macduff I will surprise; Seize upon Fife; give to the edge of the sword His wife, his babes, and all unfortunate souls That trace him in his line.(4.1.147,153) Macbeth is able to not only kill men of his own size but also women and small children, which shows how far he has come since Lady Macbeth's ?little' push to kill